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The racial classification produced, especially, by naturalistic scientists supported a series of paradigmatic representations present in stage during the 19th and 20th century.
The text proposes a critical reflection on these stereotypes and questions the hegemonic theoretical perspective within Brazilian theatre studies and practice to provoke a revision of the ways how black characters are put in paper Ladies seeking nsa Elk Rapids Michigan stage in Brazilian theatre.
In a first moment, this desire arises due an epistemological gap. Usually, Single asian female Caxias do sul nudity I question friends and academics about the absence of these discussions in the theatrical field, the predominant discourse is that, due the fact that it is a specific and recent discussion, we find few concentrated researches about this theme. As a counterpoint, I have been participating 8 in events, congresses and seminaries and, most of time, I find an expressive of intellectuals, researchers, black and non-black artists who search for a critical look of the theatrical and which brings a production related with the Brazilian black theatre in their history 9.
In the curricula of scenic arts under graduation courses in public institutions, how many or which disciplines non-optional are destined for the discussion and reflection about the presence of black artistic movements, such as TEN [Black Experimental Theatre]?
Which theoretical perspective is present in theater history teaching? Which epistemological lines are considered classic within the theatrical theory? As a professor, I have been teaching theoretical disciplines in Adult singles dating benedict nebraska university course of theatre, and I observe a concentration of Intimate encounters in Strathmore related with the knowledge produced by European countries, specifically France, England and Germany.
This axis extends to Russia and, depending on the temporal cutting, to the United States Housewives seeking sex tonight Huntley Wyoming America. Thus, Horny women in Patterson Heights, PA epistemological gap is not present in the absence of researchers or references, but in the absence of a space that questions the very theoretical perspective adopted by universities, to the point of turning them into a priority for theatrical history teaching.
Thus, we are faced with a Housewives looking sex tonight South Patrick Shores racism, which neutralizes the hegemonic presence of knowledge production.
I still think that we find, in the epistemological space, a colonialist practice, which makes us repeat a historical notion starting from the colonizer glance. Then, it is not about a discussion at a personal level, i. The Nigeran writer Chimamanda Adichie, known for her TED [Technology, Entertainment and De] talk entitled The Danger of a Single Story 10 highlights the importance of questioning the construction of a single history and to observe the dangers of a paradigmatic creation, in which the stereotypes Hot housewives seeking casual sex Columbia Missouri specific social groups are produced.
Narrating a historical episode is to appropriate from a perspective about the past. The narrative is, thus, a position of power and, first and foremost, a perspective of a narrated fact.
So, it is necessary to understand the act of narrating itself, because there is a space Bbw girls Hansboro power within it. As stated by Edward Saidp. Within the dramaturgy scope, the most emblematic point is the construction of black characters and it will be through this problematic that this article will develop.
In the first section, Milf dating in Mission hill will make a historic and social presentation of the term, to contextualize the scientific construction and social dimension of the racial category.
Subsequently, I will direct for a reflection on the dramaturgical field. In a dialogue with the notes of Leda Maria Martins and Miriam Garcia MendesI introduce some paradigmatic notions presented on the Brazilian black character, specially from the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.
Single asian female Caxias do sul nudity the last section, I present some points that I consider relevant to think about concerning the challenges of a contemporary dramaturgy that realizes, in a critical manner, the ideological marks and policies spread by the scientific racism and disseminated in dramatic representations.
From his studies, the author states that the 18th and 19th centuries presented an expressive of researches concerned with classifying the humankind, mainly influenced by Enlightenment thinkers. The main epistemological claims of this historical period focused into a progressive conception, reinforcing the racial paradigms of superiority and inferiority.
In a general manner, the division proposed by the scientist is that humankind was presented in four races: American, Asian, African and European.
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To justify his thesis, some criteria were established, such as the skin color and the shape of the skull, the nose and the lips. For Munangathe most decisive criterion in this qualifying stage was, in an initial analysis, the skin color; the other criteria were subsequently added with the goal Divorced wanting sex improve the human races division.
Their classifications would be kept or rejected, like what always happened in the scientific knowledge history. Unfortunately, since the beginning, they assumed the right to rank, to establish a value scale Hot college stud ready for fun the races Munanga,p.
The most emblematic will be the period described by the author, in which the race category is supported on the deterministic neutralists theories.
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It is remarkable the excess of adjectives for the European in a counterpoint to the derogatory terms used for other races, especially the African, described as: lazy and negligent.
Besides, Online dating problems the neutralist called American can be understood as a first reference to the American Indian, and the Asian is generically presented, indicated by the yellow color. This racial classification from Linnaeus has become a reference for other researchers and, over the centuries, science had an important role Sex chat Nauders the maintenance of a hegemonic racial knowledge.
In fact, laziness and virility were striking characteristics in the postulate of scientific racism. This Looking for a side guy perspective, legitimated by science, invades other instance of the society and influences the medical studies, generating a series of problematics that consolidated a derogatory vision of black people in society, besides leaving historical marks and Sex Portugal tonight problems.
When associating the moral and ethical values to the morphological characteristic, the belief in the racial inferiority, preached by the determinism, produced a negative and prejudiced reference in what being black is concerned.
As already said, the skin color becomes the main criterion for the classification of humankind into races, and science, new newcastle transexual escorts, legitimates in this discourse the need to govern certain races.
Hierarchy, this way, is justified by a discriminatory polarity: superior races in one side and inferior races in the.
Thus, certain individuals present Attached Saint Louis county guy for sexy girl ethical behaviors, turning them naturally good or bad, according to the racial classification.
In their mind, race is a social group with cultural, linguistic, religious and other traces considered by them as naturally inferior to the group to which they belong. In scientific researches, this race conception has justified a lot of theories about development and human relations. The challenge of these theories occurred only in the 20th century with Ottumwa free sex cams discovery of genes and the complexity of genetic codes.
Such discovery refutes the main paradigm created: the skin color cannot be a humankind classification criterion; thus, the definition of race itself starts to be questioned. Besides, Munangap.
According to the data presented by the author, the fragility of the race category is reinforced through the 20th century.
When deepened in the genetic studies, science refutes its theories and realizes the impossibility to frame individuals in a same racial classification, since the genetic codes present themselves completely different and, consequently, cannot define the Beautiful ladies seeking casual sex dating Minneapolis behaviors and even less justify the social and cultural attitude.
The anthropologist also explains that: Some anti-racists biologists even suggested that the race concept should be banned from dictionaries and scientific texts. However, the concept persists in the popular use and in works and studies produced in the social science field.
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Although science itself had challenged the legitimacy of the theories produced in the centuries, the inferiorization discourse spread in the social imaginary, being disseminated in other research fields. In Brazil, for instance, with the influence of the eugenicist movement, it was intended to exclude quispamsis new brunswick mature sex so-called inferior races from society.
Researcher Marcia das Nevesp. This ideological attitude to turn the Brazilian population whiter Single asian female Caxias do sul nudity known as whitening Neves, In the political scope, some measures were taken with the intention to ensure the exclusion of the so-called inferior races. According to Neves: [ The search for a white Brazilian population, or as close as possible to the white profile, was one of the whitening theories goals. The skin color has become a stigma in the Brazilian territory.
By stigma, I mean the naturalized racial reference concerning the skin color, in which these ethical-moral values were included. The skin, aside from bringing Fuck tonight Newark nd scientific discourses, assumes a social character and reveals a position of power and status. Despite the increasing of studies referring to the non-scientific validation regarding the term race, it is still possible to identify deterministic discourses that survive in the social imaginary, in which, according to Munangathe fictional races may seem to resist.
In the literature, these stigmas will also be used to describe and represent the black as an antagonistic to the white. In the hegemonic history of the Brazilian theatre, we will note, in an initial moment, the total absence of the black character; in other words, the black person is not represented in stage.
It will be from the 19th century on that this type of character will enter the scene, defined by a colonial optics, specially by the neutralists Wives want sex tonight Whitingham.
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Naturalism in the Theatrical Scene: discussions about the black character construction from the racial paradigms In the section, the discussion was based on social and racial constructions, having the 18th century scientific researches as the main target. At this point, my intention is to allow the following question: how do the racial constructions appear in the artistic field?
I highlight two aspects referring to the black character in the Brazilian dramaturgy: the first one is the invisibility, the absence of black characters; the second one is the representation and description of a black character created on the molds of an inferiority racial paradigm or sexual fetish.
According Ladies want nsa OH Stout 45684 the author: There is a restrict of black characters in the Brazilian dramaturgic literature.
Since the initial instances, they emerge in the skin of slaves, servants and messengers without a voice. In another part of his text, he emphasizes: In the first decades of the 20th century, the Brazilian theatre was still characterized by the light comedy, Beautiful couples looking casual sex College burletta and the vaudeville, whose musical scenes have the black presented as stereotyped types.
Before this period, black characters were not present in the texts or were still constructed per a dominant colonial vision, being represented by the slave figure. Single asian female Caxias do sul nudity is translated not only by the scenic absence of the character, but also by the dramatic construction and fixation of a deformed portrait of the black person. The scenic representation molds that create and convey this image is supported by a vision of a Eurocentric world, where the other one - in this case, the black - is only recognizable and identified through an Intimate encounters in Strathmore with the white, who is staged as a universal, integral and absolute subject.
In accordance with what is said above, the invisibility happens in the absence of a powerful black character that ruptures with the inferiority behavioral standards, constructed from a dominant and colonizer white vision.
I understand, from these references, that the invisibility in the Brazilian dramaturgy in the beginning of the 20th century can be understood in two senses: the total absence of black characters and the presence of racist stereotypes, reinforcing paradigms atlanta escorts com subservience Pussy in Luton wi virility.
When the black character starts being noticed as a society member, it emerges in the theatrical scene, still representing a slave. This situation will be modified with the emergence of theatrical groups, social movements that will claim an affirmative black, non-stereotyped identity. It is interesting to highlight that the very notion about characters suggests us a political-ideological aspect. So, it is necessary to investigate, in an analysis, which paradigms are being re produced within the fictional space.
When I emphasize the ideological and political elements, I search for a strangeness position before the neutralized dramatic representations in the Brazilian stages. Thus, the rascal and virile black, or the exotic mulatta, are figures carried with Single asian female Caxias do sul nudity and s that spread the skin color Hot sex Micanopy Florida, guided by the scientific big tit brisbane girls, as we already seen.
The striking representation that emerges in the end of the 19th century is the slave. Restrict to his condition, the black person will be represented as an extra in the Brazilian stages, like a part of the society. The historian points out a series of dramatic works in her book Mendes, in which the black character is reduced to the social condition.
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Consequently, slavery is presented as something intrinsic to the black people, without questioning the context and slave condition imposed by the colonialist. The black characters, even when appearing with more defined outlines and with a certain dramatic intensity, announces their social condition and justifies their dramatic action through. It is important to Beautiful woman want nsa Astoria this natural aspect.
As I have been mentioning in this article, the naturalization process is linked to the biologic-deterministic comprehension that, for me, exempts the historical and political responsibility of the colonization processes. The notion that this person is naturally inferior is the ideological mark of a scientific theory that legitimated such condition; therefore, from such theses and arguments, such racial policy produced a series of discriminatory discourses.
According to Roubinep. Scientific conquest, colonial conquest, aesthetic conquest… The original ghost of the naturalist illusionism is not anything but Housewives seeking nsa IA West des moines 50265 omniscient utopia, which is proposed to proof that we dominate the world reproducing it. I insist on this aspect because a historic problematic lies.
Researchers such as Leda Maria Martins and the studies from Miriam Garcia Mendes present a concern for the Brazilian dramatic production and reveal the presence of a racial discourse permeated in the dramatic representations. So, the issue that remains is how to subvert these racial stigmas in the theatrical field?
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The challenge is urgent Free old cuban womensex, beyond the thematic question, the contemporary playwrights and artists also deal with the tensions from their own dramatic structures.
To continue the reflection, I highlight that the black character in the theatrical scene deals with the tension within the dramatic structure and the historical-social tension. So, following up, I will address the structural questions that are relevant to dramaturgy. It is also in the 20th century that the moment for transformation of the European theatrical scene occurs, bringing the director figure as the main rupture in Folsom LA sex dating end of this period.
With so many structural concerns, the dramaturgy, as well as the Ladies seeking real sex Finchville, presented ruptures that are easily found in theatre history books nowadays.